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The Jewish Community of Laupheim and its Annihilation

Book Pages 153 - 158

EINSTEIN, Emanuel,


livestock trader, 21/1 Kapellenstrasse



Translated by:
David Runda, Vanessa Franz, Victor Nölke and Sina Kirwel
Supervisor: Dr. Robynne Flynn-Diez,

Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg,

Institut für Übersetzen und Dolmetschen Englischabteilung


Emanuel Leopold Einstein, born August 17, 1865, in Laupheim, married to Mathilde, née Levy, born March 25, 1868, in Buttenhausen, died July 22, 1937, in Laupheim, Germany.


Louise Einstein, married name Heumann, born February 18, 1894 in Laupheim, died November 21, 1982, in Cincinnati, USA, married to Richard Hugo Heumann, born September 30, 1885, in Laupheim, died in Auschwitz on September 5, 1942.

-    Marianne Heumann, born August 13, 1920, in Laupheim, died October 18, 1991, in Bonnieux, France,

-    Franz Benno Heumann, born March 5, 1927, in Ulm, Germany

    Hugo Einstein, born October 8, 1895, in Laupheim, moved to Tübingen May 4, 1920.


The photo shows proud grandparents Emanuel and his wife Mathilde Einstein, probably with their granddaughter Marianne Heumann, who at the time was five years old. The picture was taken in Laupheim around 1925, during the Weimar Republic, in the Roaring Twenties.


Several years after the turmoil of its beginnings, with the Treaty of Versailles in 1919, the Kapp Putsch in 1920, the Beer Hall Putsch in 1923, and high inflation until the same year, the Weimar Republic finally brought about a calmer, more stable life for the German people.


At that time there were numerous Einstein families in Laupheim, of which several members can be found in the memorial book. They are all somehow related to one another, since they can be traced back to Leopold Einstein (1720-1796) and his wife Esther, née Öttinger (died in 1811). The couple belonged to a group of Jews who had moved to Laupheim during the 18th century as a result of the three Treaties for Jewish Protection, which were signed under the aristocratic family von Welden. Their graves are some of the oldest in the Jewish cemetery in Laupheim.


Emanuel Leopold Einstein, born on August 17, 1865, in Laupheim, was the son of Leopold Emanuel Einstein (1824-1900) and his wife Louise, née Laupheimer (1831-1892). He thus belonged to the fifth generation of Einsteins in Laupheim. Some of his cousins who resided in the same town were Amalie Höchstetter (née Einstein), Emilie Bernheimer (née Einstein), Helene Hofheimer (née Einstein, Pauline Nördlinger (née Einstein) and hop trader Max Einstein. Their lives have also been documented in the memorial book. Just like his cousins, Emanuel Leopold Einstein grew up in Laupheim and lived his entire life in his home town on 21 Kapellen Street.


From there he also ran his livestock trade, which played a significant role in the relationship between Christians and Jews. Traditionally, Jews were strongly represented in the livestock trade, especially horses and cattle. They were intermediaries between farmers and the local cattle markets. Emanuel Einstein’s occupation probably led him to the Upper Swabian region, among other cities, to Buttenhausen, with its Jewish rural community and local cattle markets. That is probably also where he met his future wife. On December 22, 1892, he married Mathilde Levy in her home town of Buttenhausen. She was born on March 25, 1868, the daughter of salesman Mayer Levy and his wife Sara, née Lindauer. Nevertheless, Laupheim was the couple’s main place of residence, where they lived in his parents’ home on 21 Kapellen Street.


They had two children. On February 18, 1894, their daughter Louise Einstein was born. She was apparently named after her paternal grandmother, who had died two years prior to her birth. Their son, Hugo, was born the following year on October 8, 1895. Both children spent their childhood in Laupheim and went to the Jewish Volksschule (1). Then they most likely attended the Realschule (2) where Latin was taught. Hugo Einstein probably took Latin and completed his Abitur (3), since he subsequently studied medicine. His studies were interrupted by World War I and in Januar 1915 Hugo was drafted in Ulm. In the same year he participated in the German advance on Poland. He was later relocated to France, where he fought in the Battle of Verdun and the Battle of Champagne. Due to a heart defect, he stopped fighting on the front line in 1916. The last rank he held was that of an orderly medical sergeant. He carried out his duties in the military hospital in the communications zone behind the front lines. He was finally discharged on December 16, 1918, at the end of World War I. Once home, he most likely took up his medical studies. The last information available about his life is the documentation of his move to Tübingen on May 4, 1920.



“Young Hugo Einstein as a pupil

at Laupheim’s Real- und Lateinschule[4] 1910/11

(Archive: Ernst Schäll)

Unlike Hugo, his sister Louise Einstein, pictured in the middle, remained in Laupheim and had a sheltered upbringing in her family and within the Jewish community. At the same time, she took part in Laupheim’s social life, as can be seen by the group picture at a dance social in 1911 on the following page. It was taken at the conclusion of a dance class under the direction of ballet teacher, Geiger, from Ravensburg/Ulm at the Kronprinz inn on Kapellen St., nowadays Alexis Sorbas. Girls of all confessions, especially from Laupheim, participated in the dance class, a sign that Catholics, Protestants and Jews peacefully coexisted at the beginning of the 20th century.


From left to right: Emmie Bammert,

Gustav Bach, Louise Einstein, Anna Stuber.

From left to right:

1st row, seated: Rieser (Isr.), Hilda Löffler, Resle Ott (from Bronnen), Gustav Bosch, Cläre Friedberger (Isr.), Louise Hermann (née Spleis);

2nd row standing: Betty Obernauer (Isr.), Josefine Arnold (née Speth), Emilie Bammert, Anna Knoll (née Stuber), Lina Raff (née Stumpp), Pauline Egge;

3rd and upper row: Adolf Scheffold (qualified engineer, temporary mayor of Laupheim from 1945), Martha Moosmayer (née Gerhard), Louise Heumann (née Einstein) (Isr.), Hans Sauter (died during the First World War).

It is unknown what kind of education Louise received in the next few years or whether or not she had a job. On October 26, 1919, she married Richard Heumann who was from Laupheim as well. As director of the Gewerbebank (5), he was one of the most renowned members of the Jewish community at that time. They lived on 15 Kapellen St. until their immigration to Paris in 1935. The remainder of their life is documented in the memorial book under the name Bertha Heumann, within the context of her husband’s family. Even though the couple’s life during the Weimar Republic was rather peaceful, it all changed with the Nazis’ systematic and rapid rise to power in 1933. The suspension of Jewish bank director Richard Heumann was used as an example to intimidate not only Laupheim’s entire Jewish community, but also the Christian population. Please refer to the article of Bertha Heumann’s family for further reading.  


Louise’s parents remained in Laupheim, even after the emigration of their daughter’s family, and were subjected to ever-increasing social exclusion and deprivation of their rights. The alarming events of 1933 undoubtedly led to their decision to emigrate as soon as possible. On behalf of his son-in-law, Richard Heumann, Emanuel Einstein tried to obtain proof of his time spent in protective custody. His request, however, was denied because it was impossible to issue such a document for Jews who had already emigrated.


The fragment below shows the original signature of the petitioner:



Laupheim, January 2, 1935
To the honourable District Authority
My son-in-law, Richard Heumann, is in need of certification that he was taken into protective custody on April 1 until 13, 1933. I would be ever so grateful if you issued the certificate as quickly as possible.
Thank you very much for your efforts.
Yours respectfully,
Emanuel Einstein


In contrast to the younger generations, it became increasingly difficult for the older Jews of Laupheim, including Emanuel and Mathilde Einstein, to leave their ancestral home town with their children. Only after Mathilde’s death on July 22, 1937, did Emanuel Einstein, alone and widowed at the age of seventy-two, consider emigration.  After presenting a health certificate, which he had obtained from a medical officer due to his asthma, he visited his children Richard and Louise Heumann and grandchildren Marianne and Franz Benno in Paris in 1937. The following year, he decided to permanently immigrate to Paris to live with his daughter’s family.

On May 30, 1938, under the pretext of spending yet another three to four weeks recuperating in Paris, he informed the county commissioner of Laupheim of his intended departure, who then passed this information on to the Gestapo field office in Ulm. Emanuel fortunately never returned to Laupheim.


The Einstein family’s home and barn on 21 Kapellen St. were sold to Elise Häussler, an unmarried milkmaid from Ulm, for 10.500 Reichsmark (6). They were sold at a very low price, and Emanuel Einstein probably did not receive any of the proceeds from the sale, as he had not paid two mortgage inscriptions from the Gewerbebank amounting to 3000 and 6000 Reichsmark. The reason for the sale was to secure the creditors against loss, which would nowadays be regarded as a forced foreclosure. It is unknown whether or not he had received any form of restitution after World War II. In 1949, with the aid of Stuttgart based solicitor and notary Ostertag, Emanuel Einstein sought to recover the belongings he had had to leave behind in Laupheim. According to the tax office in Biberach there were several files missing, such as inventory lists and public sales records, which indicates that he did not receive any compensation.


In 1938, Emanuel Einstein joined his family in Paris, but they were not safe there. Germany’s invasion of Poland on September 1, 1939, which marked the beginning of World War II, also had consequences for German emigrants in France. Richard Heumann, his son-in-law, suffered a great tragedy and the rest of the family made a very bold and dangerous escape, which ended in Switzerland. In 1945, once the war was over, the family immigrated to the United States.

[1] a type of basic primary and secondary school in Germany

[2] a type of German middle school; this one in particular had a Latin department which is unusual for these types of schools

[3] Equivalent to the American SAT exam

[4] cf. footnote 2

[5] a commercial bank

[6] Approximately €50.000, or $57.000



Quellen-, Literatur- und Bildverzeichnis:

Braun, Josef: Altlaupheimer Bilderbogen. Band 2. Weißenhorn 1988. S. 119–120. Hüttenmeister, Nathanja: Der Jüdische Friedhof Laupheim. Laupheim 1998.

Juden in Buttenhausen. Hrsg. v. der Stadt Münsingen. Münsingen 1994. Kreisarchiv Biberach 034/Bü 51 u. 54.

Neuhaus, Geoff: The Heumans of Laupheim. O.J. Standesamt Laupheim. Familienregister Band V. S. 237.

Weil, Jonas: Verzeichnis von Kriegsteilnehmern der israelitischen Gemeinde Laupheim. Laupheim 1919

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