upheimand its Annihilation
Book Pages 492 - 506
STEINER-NÖRDLINGER, Helmut and Edith
STEINER, Simon L. and Melanie,
Gerberei, 2 Bronner Strasse
Translated by: Heinrich Steiner Re´ut Israel
HEINRICH STEINER , RE’UT (ISRAEL)
Helmut Steiner, born September 20th, 1899 in Laupheim, deceased June 5th, 1992 in St.Gallen (Switzerland).
Married to Edith Steiner, née Nördlinger, born July 1st, 1900 in St.Gallen, deceased June 25, 1988 in St.Gallen.
- Heinrich (Yitzhak Heinrich) Steiner, born August 12th, 1931 in Ulm,
- Martha (Martina) Steiner, born February 27th, 1935 in St.Gallen.
Melanie née Herz (1872 – 1956) and Simon L. Steiner (1864 – 1937)Martha née Goldberg (1870 – 1908) and Isaac H. Nördlinger (1858 – 1925).
Emigration of the family to St. Gallen/Switzerland in 1936.
The tannery and leather business Steiner, centrally located at the
beginning of the Kapellenstrasse., neighboring the present town hall.
Photo of the year 1925. (Photo: Bilderkammer Museum)
Not only his first years, but the whole life of Helmut Steiner was imprinted by his descent from the tannery which had been founded by his grandfather. Leopold, Leopold H. Steiner (1834-1904) was a son of the legendary Heinrich Steiner (1794-1885) , the recipient of a royal medal for his achievements concerning the construction of the railroad connection Ulm-Friedrichshafen. As a young man Leopold served an apprenticeship as a tanner; the booklet recording his travels through Germany and the surrounding countries is still kept by the author in the family archives. For instance he worked from April to July 1855 in Rorschach (Switzerland) and then came via Zurich.to Bern. The tannery was one of the most important economic enterprises in Laupheim, together with the other three companies of the sons and grandsons of the couple Miriam née Einstein (1769-1847) and Simon Victor Steiner (1762-1804): the estate of the castle “Schloss Gross-Laupheim”, the “Laupheim Tools’ Factory LW” of, formerly Joseph Steiner and Sons, and the hops trade of Simon H.Steiner.
The local historian Josef K.Braun uses the photo of the lower Kapellen Street, taken in 1925 (page 493) for a detailed description of the business. At the back of their home bearing the sign-board “Leopold H.Steiner, tannery, leather trade,shoemakers´commodities, shafts and transmissino belts” were the workshops and a big storage barn, as well as an open space towards the “Bären” inn where the big oak tanning casks were deeply inserted into the ground. Within these casks the raw skins were treated within layers of shredded bark of oaks and firs. The tanning process needed a lot of water which was easily available in that place. It took months until the acid tanning juice transformed the skins into leather.
About 1895: Two Steiner generations, in elegant attire, in front of the Kapellenstrasse
house. On the left: Simon Leopold and his wife Melanie née Herz, on the right
Fanny née Rosengart and Leopold Steiner.
The bark barn and drying rooms of the Steine tannery
the Gymnasium Strasse. Today the site is used as an unpaved parking lot.
(Photo: Ernest L Bergman, Bilderkammer Museum)
The chronicler Schenzinger wrote in 1897: “Out of a primitive workshop the owner had developed his business favourably by skill and financial investment into a real factory with a remarkable turnover. The main establishment in the center of the town was completed by an extensive area in the south of the town with the color casks and the wooden barns for the purpose of drying and storing the tanning bark.” This area was at the end of the Raben Street where for a long time the maintenance department quarters of the town were located.
Helmut’s father, Simon (officially “Sigmund”), called “Gerberle” (the little
tanner) was born on June 18, 1864,
as the only child of the couple
Fanny née Rosengart (1838-1931) and Leopold Steiner (1834-1904), as recorded
on a birth certificate by the “Royal Rabbinate of Laupheim”. After
elementary school he completed the “Latin” (Junior High) school existing
since 1872 (provisionally from 1869) and then went to the college “Royal
Gymnasium of Ulm” which he left after two years to report for “one year’s
voluntary “ military service”.
Then came the time for his professional training which he started on January
1st, 1879, with a two-and-a-half-year apprenticeship at Heinrich Frankfurter
in Stuttgart. According to the “Apprentice Contract” of February16th, 1879
his father Leopold paid an allowance , including board and lodging, of twice
400 Marks a year. The last half year was free of charge. After the final
apprenticeship exam he worked at the tannery of Th. Dienstbach in Bingen on
the Rhine. From here he once sent his parents a small basket of grapes,
closing his letter with the request “Would you please send me some money,
since I don’t want to ask Mr. Dienstbach for it”.
Simon Leopold Steiner, despite his remarkable
height called “the little tanner” (Gerberle).
(Photo: Bilderkammer Museum)
At the age of 30 Simon married Melanie Herz from Ludwigshafen,
who was 8 years younger than him, and in the same year he took over his
father’s business valued
at 48,000 Marks. The picture of that time (see above, p.493) shows the
newly-wed couple with his parents Fanny and Leopold Steiner-Rosengart. In
1896 their daughter Julie (Julia) was born, and three years later their son
Helmut. Even at an advanced age he used to laugh about having to wear the
clothes of his elder sister, and the children of the neighborhood who used
to tease him: “Helmut’s wearing girls’ clothes”. At about the time of his
birth the young family moved into their newly-built home at Bronner Street
no.2. The grandparents Fanny née Rosengart and Leopold H.Steiner continued
to live in the tannery on the Kapellen Street. In the year 1904, when the
“grandfather, the tanner” died, his wife moved to their only son’s house on
the Bronner Street. She outlived her husband by nearly 30 years and died at
the ripe old age of 93 in the same year when her great-grandchild Heinrich
was born. Up to her death she was the undisputed head of the clan, and
everybody honored and cared for her. She was the third of the nine children
born to the couple Nanette née Kahn (1812-1881) and Josef (1803-1885)
Rosengart from Buttenhausen, a family with whose descendants the family of
Helmut Steiner was in close connection.
After the passing away of his father Leopold, Simon
him in the leading functions of the Jewish congregation which had been
occupied by tradition by members of the family: as chairman of the
community, being in charge of the poor-box, and as the trustee of “Matan
b’seter” (“Give in Silence” i.e. discreetly). When in 1923, in the wake of
the inflation, the assets of this foundation dwindled, he appealed to the
former Jews of Laupheim so that the capital could be restored. Also his wife
Melanie née Herz “cared discreetly for the needy of the town but did not
want to be mentioned in public – and that is exactly why she is remembered
up to this day” (see in “Schwaebische Heimat” vol.22/1 (1971) p.42 ). In
addition Simon personally took care of the Jewish cemetery and conducted the
synagogue choir which he accompanied on the harmonium (see the concert
program on p.497). He was an active member of the Jewish choir “Frohsinn”
and played music at home: they owned a piano made by the still existing
renowned firm of Pfeiffer in Stuttgart: Melanie and Simon played music for 4
hands on it. (The music books of Strauss edited by Peters no.1376b and the
Hungarian dances by Brahms, Peters no.2100 a, with the stamp “Simon L.
Steiner Laupheim” are still in family use). The two children
Announcement from the year 1929 about today’s renewed election
of the two chairmen of the Jewish congregation: Simon L. Steiner and Jakob Adler.
(From: Laupheimer Verkündiger)
In the year 1922 the former film pioneer Carl Laemmle of Laupheim travelled with the cantor of the Laupheim synagogue Emil Elias Dworzan (1856-1931) and Simon L.Steiner to Berlin where he financed the recording of prayers from the religious services on 28 shellac records. These were kept by Helmut Steiner whose descendants donated them to the Laupheim Museum for the History of Christians and Jews and had them converted unto a double CD recording edited in 2012 by the Haus der Geschichte of Baden-Wuerttemberg in Stuttgart. In 1927, in recognition of his 25 years of “uninterrupted, unselfish and blessed activity for the welfare and prosperity of our congregation” he was bestowed a silver vase and a certificate of honor. A similar token of esteem was presented to him on his 70th birthday in 1934.
Like his father Simon (see above), Helmut Steiner (1899-1992) attended , from
1909, the junior high school (Latein- und Realschule) of Laupheim
opened in 1896. He continued his studies at the college (Progymnasium) at
Biberach where he lodged with the vocational
school teacher Emil Rexer and passed the intermediate-level exam. The famil
high esteem for classical education was attested by the motto he was awarded by
his father on July 13th, 1913 “before your exam in Biberach and for all of your
further life”: “Quidquid agis, prudenter agas et respice finem – principiis
obsta”. After these schools Helmut did not hesitate to learn the trade of a
tanner and to join the family business. He started as a
trainee at the tannery Breuninger in
Backnang, where in July 1915 he was the victim of a severe accident: his right
forearm got stuck between a pulley and the belt when the power transmission was
carelessly operated, and had to be amputated in an emergency operation. But
thanks to his energy he soon got used to performing
all manipulations with his left hand:
from writing and shaving up to cycling and skiing. Immediately he
returned to his professional career. Later on he became a passionate driver and
acquired an open sports’ car, “Steiger”
- Tourenwagen Typ 10/50
the famous model 10/50 made by the firm of Steiger in Burgrieden near Laupheim.
Using his left hand, he manoeuvered it diligently over the Alps and
he loved it so much that he was nicknamed
“Audole” (small car)
by his friends. For years, when doing manual work, he continued to make use of
the long cotton coat which protected him against the dust of the road; his tight
leather cap has been
exhibited since 2014 on the 2nd floor of the House at the Jewish
in Laupheim. When he had to learn afresh to do things using his left hand, he
was helped by the experience of the disabled from the world war: so for instance
by means of an instruction sheet for the one-armed (“Merkblatt fuer Einarmige”)
edited in Stuttgart in 1915. Up to his old age he expressed the opinion that his
life was saved by the fact that due to the accident he was no longer called up
for military service. Another positive consequence was his family’s enduring
friendship with the deaconess nurse Mina Hess of Fellbach who cared for him at
that time and later joined a Christian mission in China.
In 1916 he was treated in nearby Singen (Hohentwiel) by Dr. Erich Lexer (1867-1937), a pioneer in plastic and reconstructive surgery and successor of Prof. Sauerbruch in Munich. Lexer tried to fit him with an artificial limb but he never got accustomed to it. Through all of his life he suffered from pains caused by the severed nerves (neuromas) left on his maimed arm.
Program of a joint concert of the synagogue choirs of Ulm
and Laupheim conducted Simon L.Steiner.
(Archives R. Emmerich)
In order to complete his studies Helmut attended the German College of Tannery in Freiburg (Saxonia) from 1922 – 1923,where he made life-long friendships (Wolgien, Praepke, Cristian Rostock. Kurt Lindgens, Fritz Rosenfelder) and took part in the activities of the students’ society “Eichenlaub”. On Mai 12/13, 1924 the chamber of commerce of Ulm granted him his diploma as a master tanner.
However, his following professional activity at the family business was not
to last long. The tannery suffered from the economic consequences of the war
and the inflation, and the technical development of the profession would
have required heavy investments. At about the same time Helmut was
approached by his relatives in the Steiner family’s hop
business where, after the deaths of Louis Steiner (1911) and his son
Heinrich (1918) two additional blows of fate had to be overcome: in America
William, the son of Sam S.Steiner, died of typhoid fever (1902-1924), and
Samuel Victor Steiner, a cousin of Sam’s, fell victim to
blood poisoning. As an immediate consequence, Julius, the younger son of
Hedwig Steiner-Reinemann, moved to New York, and Helmut entered the Laupheim
business in 1926. He started as an office employee, obtained procuration and
quickly advanced to the position of manager. As the family member
Advertisements of the Steiner tannery firm in the local paper
“Laupheimer Verkuendiger” from the years 1924 and 1925.
née Noerdlinger (1900-1988) had grown up with her only sister Linda
(1904-1981) in the house of her father, cared for by their American aunt
Elsie Goldberg who had moved to the St.Gallen family after the untimely
death of her mother. Therefore she was familiar with the English language,
and after a stay in the French part of Switzerland was also fluent in
French. In St.Gallen, at the first college of its kind in Switzerland, she
studied to be a nursery school (Kindergarten) teacher and in 1923 was
awarded her diploma. After a few years in practice her father passed away,
and shortly afterwards her aunt, too. At the University of St.Gallen (then
called the “Handels-Hochschule”) she acquired the diploma of an English
teacher. When she married and
moved to Laupheim she lost – according to the law at that time – her Swiss
citizenship and became a German. The first apartment of the young couple was
the Radstrasse, until they bought a plot in the Koenig-Wilhelm-Strasse,
exactly behind the present town hall, and erected a villa there. Their
courtyard was adjacent to the plot of the family tannery. When Helmut joined
business, the production was by and by discontinued. The business shifted to
the trading of raw skins, until it was dissolved entirely. This development
was accelerated by the hostility of the National Socialists against the
distinguished master tanner Simon L. Steiner, by a malicious denunciation
about alleged fraud, and the conviction by the jury of Ulm following his
“confession” enforced by the political situation. During his stay in the
prison of Rottenburg (Neckar) he got severely ill and died a broken man in
the University Hospital of Tuebingen. The funeral service at the Synagogue
of Laupheim on Sep.8, 1937, was conducted by the chairman of the
congregation Jonas Weil (1871-1942) whose wife Cilly was a Noerdlinger by
birth, and by the last teacher at the Jewish school of
who succeeded in finding refuge in Sweden at the last moment in 1939 (the
eulogy is kept in the family archives).
Shortly after moving into their new home their son Heinrich was born in the
private hospital “Johanneum“ in
Ulm; an enormous circle of family and friends gave him a lively welcome as a
promising heir, appreciating the founding of a family
as a token of confidence within
these times of political uncertainty. The ritual “Brith Mila” (circumcision)
was performed on August 24 in the same clinic by Edith’s uncle Dr. Simon
Noerdlinger from Buchau. When their daughter Martha was born three and a
half years later, the parents drove over the border to Switzerland where
grown up previously. They were aware of the precarious times and began to
prepare their emigration. Helmut Steiner remembers in his memories: “For
myself … the work
got more awful from day to day, in particular as a partner
the management became an ardent anti-Semite”. The first sign of his reaction
towards the political situation was his letter to the Laupheim athletic
club, as a consequence of the “message of the new leader of the German
Athletic Club”, regarding the expulsion of the Jewish members: “I immensely
regret to draw the logical consequence and to ask you to discharge me from
my position as member of the committee; likewise I declare the
In 1936, Edith and Helmut Steiner were lucky to get all of their belongings
out of Germany and into Switzerland. They settled in St.Gallen where Edith
had grown up. Their apartment also housed the offices of the new firm he had
established together with Sam and Julius Steiner: the “Hopfen Import and
Export GmbH”. Shortly afterwards the
firm was renamed “Steiner Hopfen
GmbH” (Steiner Hops Ltd.) with the striking cable address “hop-swiss
st. gallen” which soon became a household word. In 1938 the Laupheim hop
business was liquidated. The local real estate company existed formally till
after the war. The Swiss company was closed from 1939-1945 as Helmut Steiner
objected to any commercial connection with Nazi Germany and territories
which they occupied. However he now had the time to care for his family and
to volunteer in the Jewish congregation. For years he acted as the treasurer
and the local
the Association of Israelite Congregations in Switzerland. Also his wife
socially active: on
the Board of the St. Gallen Home-nursing Circle (“Heimpflege”), in the
Jewish Womens’ Association (“Frauenverein”), and in the
Parliament of St.Gallen (“Frauenzentrale”). Both of them cared, during the
war years, for their relatives who joined them from Laupheim, as well as for
Jewish children refugees whom they accommodated.
Edith and Helmut Steiner with son Heinrich and daughter Martha about 1936/37.
(Photo: Bilderkammer Museum)
After the war, and before he acquired Swiss citizenship, Helmut Steiner was
the first to return to Laupheim. His trips to occupied Germany equaled
expeditions. Loaded with gasoline for the car, and coffee, cigarettes and
silk stockings as “legal” tender, he was separated from his family in
Switzerland for weeks. His intention was to rebuild the main business in
Laupheim: “When I arrived at the end of 1945 for the first time at Laupheim
and Tettnang, the hop
On his next trip to New York he managed to persuade the owners of the hop
business to rebuild the Laupheim firm and to invest the necessary funds to
start the business. With the support of the attorney Dr.G.Offtermatt of
Ravensburg and the previous and loyal employees Karl Haid and Josef Schoenle
who were appointed managers of the hop trade business respectively the real
estate company, he succeeded “under immense difficulties” (Helmut Steiner)
to set the firm in motion. On his trips to Laupheim he constantly
entering into conversation with people whose views and opinions were not
known to him. He did not go to any hotel and spent his nights on the sofa in
the living room of his former neighbours and loyal friends, Otto Volz and
his family, until the butcher Xaver Bertele opened his hotel “Zum Wyse”.
Helmut Steiner used his visits to Laupheim, too, to deal with the affairs of
the former Jewish congregation and
After more than 40 years in service at Steiner Hops, Helmut Steiner retired
from business in 1969, in order to devote himself to his hobbies and to his
family and to enjoy the home which was built in the meantime on a hill above
the city of St.Gallen.
He took care of the garden, attended to his collections (antique mugs,
faiences, stamps) and put old family documents and photos in order. The home
of Edith and Helmut Steiner remained a destination for visitors from all
over the world. Frequently
official and personal delegations from Laupheim also arrived,
in order to convey their congratulations (the cover of such an album is
exhibited on the 2nd floor of the House at the Jewish Cemetery).
His vivacity and humor, his interest and appreciation
of art and culture and all affairs of public importance, as well as his
cautious and responsible behavior in business provided him and his wife with
many lasting friendships. In the meantime both of their children had founded
their own families. Their son Heinrich had emigrated with his wife Marianne
née Wallach (1942-2001) to Israel where they had four children (Daniel 1966,
Michael 1968, Judith 1970 and Neomi 1975). Their daughter Martha lived with
her husband Vincent C. Frank and daughter Simone (1968) first in Bern and
then in Basel. After the passing away of his wife Edith (1988) his energies
dwindled, but he was granted the privilege of concluding his life, according
to his last wish, in his own home. The Laupheim press acknowledged him under
the headline “All the years he remained in his heart a man from Laupheim”
with the words “Until his last years his great personality, his lively
spirit and his warm-heartedness impressed everyone he met”.
1) Vgl. STEINER, Yitzhak Heinrich: Die Firma Steiner Hopfen aus Laupheim im Laufe der Geschichte – ein auf Tradition und Kontinuität beruhende Erfolgsstory. In: Laupheimer Gespräche 2002. Jüdische Unternehmer und Führungskräfte in Südwestdeutschland 1800–1950. Stuttgart (Haus der Geschichte Baden-Württemberg, Redaktion Anna-Ruth LÖWENBRÜCK) 2004, S.120.
2) Original im Privatarchiv. Zum Beispiel arbeitete er vom April bis Juli 1855 in Rorschach (Schweiz) und kam dann über Zürich nach Bern. Die Angabe diverser Quellen (vor allem SCHENK, Georg: Die Juden in Laupheim. In: LAUPHEIM, hrsg.von der Stadt Laupheim in Rückschau auf 1200 Jahre Laupheimer Geschichte 778–1978, Weißenhorn (Konrad) 1979 S. 294), wonach die Gerberei von Leopold Steiner seit 1823 bestanden habe, ist deshalb fragwürdig und bedarf weiterer Nachforschung.
3) Vgl. SCHENK (loc.cit.) S. 293–94; BRAUN, Josef K.: Alt-Laupheimer Bilderbogen (Band I) 1985, S. 277/78, und: Nebeneinander Miteinander Gegeneinander. Museum zur Geschichte von Christen und Juden in Laupheim. Ein Museumsbegleiter (2006) S. 58.
4) Siehe Artikel „Adolf Wohlgemut Steiner“.
5) Siehe SPECKER, Hans Eugen : Laupheim vom Übergang an Württemberg (1806) bis zum Jahre 1945, in: LAUPHEIM (loc.cit.) S. 245, 293, und: August SCHENZINGER: Illustrierte Beschreibung und Geschichte Laupheims samt Umgebung (1897) S. 461/62 (Neudruck 1987 S. 487/88).
6) Siehe STEINER (loc.cit.), S. 117–130.
7) Alt-Laupheimer Bilderbogen, Band II (1988), S.173/74.
8) SCHENZINGER loc.cit. S.463/64 (Neudruck 1987 S. 487/88).
9) Siehe KREUTLE, Ulrich: Die Bedeutung der Israelitischen Gemeinde für die wirtschaftliche Entwicklung Laupheims, Abschlussarbeit an der wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Tübingen vom 16. 2. 1984 (hektographiert), S. 79–81.
10) Siehe Hauptstaatsarchiv Stuttgart E 146/1 2319, Protokolle der Visitationen des Oberamts Laupheim durch die Kreisregierung Ulm (Staatsarchiv Ludwigsburg). Ein massives Ventil der Dampfmaschine ist erhalten geblieben.
11) Original im Privatarchiv bei Rolf Emmerich.
12) Vgl. EMMERICH, Rolf: Beth Ha-Sefer. Das Haus des Buches – Die jüdische Schule in Laupheim. In: Schwäbische Heimat 2000/1, S. 72–78; SCHENK (loc.cit.) S. 296.
13) Näheres bei BRAUN (loc.cit.Band I) S.190–94, Nebeneinander (loc.cit.) S. 54, SCHENZINGER (loc.cit.) Neudruck p.458/59, Original S. 434/35.
14) Zeugnis der Stadt Laupheim von 1882, im Fundus des Stadtarchivs Laupheim oder des Museums zur Geschichte von Christen und Juden.
15) Siehe Brief an die Eltern vom 31. Oktober und Tagebuch Bingen 1883 (im Besitz des Verf.).
16) Siehe die Abbildung des jungen Paares Simon L.Steiner mit seinen Eltern. Als Vertragspartner erscheint seine Mutter als „Witwe Fanny Steiner-Rosengart“, obwohl sein Vater erst 10 Jahre später verstarb. Vermutlich wurde diese Übergabe vordatiert, um als Heiratsgabe zu gelten.
17) Siehe Abbildung (Original im Privatarchiv).
18) Siehe NEIDLINGER, Karl: Artikel „Familie Julie Bergmann geb.Steiner“, in diesem Band S. 100–109.
19) Siehe Bild auf Seite 101 und 103. Vgl. Adolf SCHAHL: Die Bau- und Kunstgeschichte von Laupheim und Umgebung, in: LAUPHEIM, hrsg.von der Stadt Laupheim in Rückschau auf 1200 Jahre Laupheimer Geschichte 778–1978, Weißenhorn (Konrad) 1979 S. 313. Ausführlicher Beschrieb, Fotos und Baupläne in der prämierten Schülerarbeit „Wohnen im Wandel“, verfasst 1978/79 von Margret BRAUNGER und Simone KÜTTENBAUM (vervielfältigtes Manuskript, im Besitz des Verf.).
20) Siehe Bild auf Seite 91.
21) Siehe Familienbild auf Seite 92.
22) Ein gerahmter Meisterbrief der Oberamtsstadt Münsingen für Josef Rosengart von 1853 befindet sich im Fundus des Stadtarchivs Laupheim oder des Museums zur Geschichte von Christen und Juden.
23) Hier folgte er seinem 1910 verschiedenen Großvetter Louis Steiner, auf den das Amt von seinem Vater Simon H.Steiner und auf diesen von seinem Großvater Heinrich Steiner übergegangen war.
24) Zitat aus: SCHILLER, Friedrich A.: Jüdische Gemeinden in Oberschwaben. In: Schwäbische Heimat Jg. 22 (1971, Heft 1) S. 42.
25) Vgl. BERGMANN, John H.: Die Bergmanns aus Laupheim. Eine Familienchronik. Hrsg. von Karl Neidlinger, Laupheim 2006, S. 61, 69.
26) In Zylinder und Frack vor dem Gasthof „Zum Ochsen“, Benno und Hermann Nördlinger sowie Arthur Grab, auf Foto in BERGMANN, John H.: Die Bergmanns aus Laupheim, hrsg. von Karl Neidlinger (2006) S. 20.
27) Das schön gebundene „Strauss-Album“ der Edition Peters No. 1376 b sowie die „Ungarischen Tänze“ von Brahms (Peters No. 2100 a) mit Stempel „Simon L.Steiner Laupheim“ sind immer noch im Gebrauch der Familie.
28) Die von Helmut Steiner aufbewahrten 28 Platten wurden dem Museum zur Geschichte von Christen und Juden vermacht und auf moderne Tonträger überspielt. Eine kommentierte Ausgabe auf CD ist in Vorbereitung. Vgl. EMMERICH, Rolf: Synagogale Musik aus der Laupheimer Judengemeinde. In: BC – Heimatkundliche Blätter für den Kreis Biberach 15. Jg. (1992 Nr. 1), Sonderdruck S. 7–9, und ESS, Robert: Beitrag „Familie Emil (Elias) Dworzan, Biberacher Str.6“, in diesem Band S. 122–126.
29) Im Fundus des Museums zur Geschichte von Christen und Juden.
30) Siehe auf dem Klassenfoto bei BRAUN (loc.cit. Band I, 1985) S. 191 und 193/94: in der obersten Reihe der zweite von rechts.
31) Original im Besitz des Verf. (SCAN in YHS family archives/Helmut Steiner)
32) Zur „Gerberstadt“ Backnang, mit der sich Helmut Steiner lebenslang verbunden fühlte, vgl. die Beiträge von Rudolf KÜHN in: Backnanger Jahrbuch, Beiträge zur Geschichte von Stadt und Umge- bung, Band 3 (1995) S. 55–67, und von Gérard HEINZ (a.a.O.) S. 155, 186–194.
33) Sein Vater Simon vermerkte in einem alten Gebetbuch wörtlich: „Dienstag 20 Juli 1915 Abd 6 h ver- unglückte Helmut in Bckg so dass ihm Freitag 30 M. 1/2 12 v. Dr. Wiegand der rechte Vorderarm amputiert werden musste. Am 20. Sept wurde er aus dem Wilh. Spital Stgt entlassen“ (Original im Privatarchiv).
34) Vgl. SCHICK, Michael: Der Steiger. Die Geschichte einer schwäbischen Autofabrik in den 20er Jahren. Laupheim (Selbstverlag) 1999, 160 S., und SCHICK, Michael: Steiger-Automobilbau 1918–1926, in: Schwäbische Heimat, 47. Jahrgang Heft 4 (Okt.–Dez.1996) S. 396–401. Ferner auf Homepage http://www.steiger-burgrieden.de .
35) Im Besitz des Verf.
36) Wie Anm. 20.
37) Zwei etwa gleichaltrige Verwandte von ihm, beide ebenfalls Urenkel von Heinrich Steiner (1794– 1885), Heinrich Steiner (geb.1895) und Julius Regensteiner (geb.1897), waren gefallen. Julius Steiner (Bruder von Heinrich) kam nach drei Jahren Dienst unverletzt nach Hause zurück. Vgl. SCHAELL, Ernst: Deutsche Soldaten jüdischen Glaubens aus einer württembergischen Kleinstadt. In: Schwäbische Heimat 49. Jg. Heft 4 (Okt.–Dez.1998) S. 433–441.
38) Original des Meisterbriefs im Privatarchiv.
39) Vgl. GIMBEL, Louis Steiner 3rd: Steiner. Broschüre, neue Auflage, New York (S.S. Steiner, Inc.) 2004 (Ursprünglich veröffentlicht 1982) S. 48, 51.
40) Ein Bild von 1926 zeigt ihn im „Kontor“ neben der legendären „Tante Hedwig“, die damals das Geschäft führte. Über Hedwig Steiner vgl. den im Druck befindlichen Vortrag des Verf. an den Laupheimer Gesprächen von 2004: „Hedwig Steiner-Reinemann (1868–1952), Bewährung in Krieg und Frieden“.
41) Vgl. EMMERICH Beth Ha-Sefer (loc.cit.) S. 76 und 77/78; HAHN, Joachim: Jüdisches Leben in Ludwigsburg. Geschichte, Quellen und Dokumentation. Karlsruhe (Braun) 1998 S. 512/13; HECHT, Cornelia/KÖHLERSCHMIDT, Antje (Hrsg.): Die Deportation der Juden aus Laupheim. Eine kommentierte Datensammlung, Geiselmann Druck Laupheim 2004, S. 17, 30; NEIDLINGER, Karl: Beitrag „Hedwig und Irma Einstein, Ulmer Straße 54“, in diesem Band.
42) Laut Inschrift seiner Großvaters Simon L.Steiner in einem alten Gebetbuch (im Privatarchiv).
43) Siehe STRAUSS, Walter (Hrsg.): Lebenszeichen. Juden aus Württemberg nach 1933. Gerlingen (Bleicher Verlag) 1982, S. 295.
44) Vgl. den Artikel vom gleichen Tag in der Frankfurter Zeitung vom Samstag, 22. April 1933, Nummer 297–298 S. 2: „Die neuen Richtlinien der Deutschen Turnerschaft“.
45) Brief an Gewerbeschulrat Eduard Eisele, erster Vorstand des Turnvereins Laupheim, vom 22. April 1933 (Originalkopie im Privatarchiv).
46) Vgl. Katholisches Kirchenblatt Laupheim, 85. Jg., Nr. 25 (15. 6. 2008) und 26 (22. 6. 2008).
47) Siehe den Nachruf in: Gallus-Stadt 1990. Jahrbuch der Stadt St. Gallen, hrsg. von Zollikofer AG/ St. Galler Tagblatt, S. 232.
48) Siehe NEIDLINGER, Karl: Artikel „Familie Julie Bergmann geb.Steiner“, in diesem Band S. 93.
49) Siehe STRAUSS (loc.cit.) S. 295.
50 )Vgl. GIMBEL (loc.cit.) S. 54/55.
51) Brief an den Verfasser vom 11. 9. 1995.
52) Vgl. BERGMANN, John H./SCHÄLL, Ernst: Der gute Ort. Die Geschichte des Laupheimer jüdischen Friedhofs im Wandel der Zeit. In: Ulmer Forum, Heft 68 (Winter 1983/84) S. 46.
53) Siehe BERGMANN/SCHÄLL (loc.cit.) S.44. Zum Kriegerdenkmal vgl. BRAUN (loc.cit.) Bd.II 1988
54) S. 192–94; SCHÄLL (loc.cit. Soldaten 1998) S. 439/40; SCHÄLL, Ernst: Der jüdische Friedhof in Laupheim. In: Schwäbische Heimat Jg. 47 Heft 4 (Okt.–Dez.1996) S. 413–14; SCHAELL, Ernst: Friedrich Adler. Leben und Werk. Hrsg. von Landrat Peter Schneider, MdL, Bad Buchau (Federsee-Verlag) 2004, S. 52, 57.
55) So z.B. überbrachte ihm am 25. 8. 1977 BM Otmar Schick mit Delegation das neu erschienene Werk von Georg Schenk mit der Widmung: „Unserem lieben treuen Laupheimer Herrn Helmut Steiner in dankbarer Verbundenheit“.
56) Vgl. den Nachruf in: Gallus-Stadt 1993. Jahrbuch der Stadt St. Gallen, hrsg. von Zollikofer AG/ St. Galler Tagblatt, S. 274/75.
57) Siehe Schwäbische Zeitung vom 13. 6. 1992, Der Neue Laupheimer Anzeiger vom 17. 6. 1992.